Poems in Translation by Reginald Gibbons

Two ancient Greek poems by women poets:


[As if Inscribed on a Tomb]


Nossis of Western Locris (southern Italy, early 3rd century BCE)



Stranger! If you sail to Mitylene (where dance is so

           Exquisite) for the sweetly sung blossoms of

                      famed Sappho,

please say that I, birthed by a woman of Locris, am


                      precious to the Muses as she.  Nossis is my

                                 name. Go!



[A Girl of Ancient Greece—slightly elaborated]


Anýtē   (Arcadia, early 3rd century BCE)


For dark-brown Cricket—little

            Muro’s grass-stem nightingale—

and for stout Cicada—her

            great-voiced belly-drummer—who

both had lived and sung for her

            in the toy cages she had

woven for them with bent green

            twigs and weed stems, she was still

weeping. The tears falling from

            her small round face plopped onto

the loose dirt she was digging

            with her mother’s wooden spoon

to make a proper tiny

            tumulus for them both that

she would cover with a pale

            flat stone. Her minikins’ lives

have been taken, have been borne

            away and down to a dim

ravine in the underworld

            by tyrannical Hades.

The God Eros, Who Cannot be Thwarted

Sophocles (b. 497/496 BCE, d. 406/405 BCE)

overpowers not just

                                    and unjust human beings

only, but animals

                                    too—and even the breath of

gods trembles, shakes, stops, bursts,

                                    when Eros wings into them,

even from far away,

                                    at their culmination. Great

Zeus Himself retreats some-

                                    times from the overthrowing

comeliness of mortal

                                    bodies. He Himself is far

too weak—even He!—to 

                                    ward off Eros.  Even He

wants, more than anything,

                                    anything, just to give in.

Obscure Heralds Robed All in Black


César Vallejo (b 1892, d. 1938)


Life pounds us very hard… I don’t know. I don’t


Blows that might have come from God Himself, in


The blood of all we’ve suffered for so long wells up


then terrified it sinks back down—into the soul…

       I don’t know!


For some, not so many blows. But they come…

       They crack open,

they contort, the fiercest face; they gash and scar

       the strongest back.

Maybe what they are is the half-wild young horses of


Attilas. Or heralds Death send us all robed in black.


Jolts that knock the Christs within one’s soul into

       long dire

plummets from a nice little faith that’s been

       blasphemed by fate.

Bloody blows!—They sound like the crackling, as

       we stand and wait,

of our holy bread in the old oven—

       but the bread catches fire!


Human beings! Poor things, poor things! This way

       and that, we look—

did somebody come up from behind and clap us on

       the back?

Wide-eyed, skittish, we stare—is this somehow our

       own fault?

Everything we’ve gone through sloshes like a foul
       puddle of guilt.


Life… hammers us… hard as stone… I don’t know.

       I just don’t know.

Nossis (3rd century BCE) lived in Locri, a Greek colony in what is now Italy. Only a dozen of her short poems survive. In one of them, she declares herself a rival of Sappho.

Anyte (early 3rd century BCE) of Tegea (a town in ancient Arcadia, Greece) Fewer than twenty of her epigrams survive. She was the first ancient Greek poet to write about animals. My version of her poem is elaborated beyond her words.

Sophocles (b. 497/496 BCE, d. 406/405 BCE) wrote more than a hundred plays, but only seven have survived intact. Many fragments from his work also survived. I have elaborated the fragment on Eros (which is from his lost play Phaedra) into what I call a “rendition,” which in this case is more detailed than the original fragment.

César Vallejo (b. March 16, 1892 – d. April 15, 1938) was born in a Peruvian mountain village, Santiago de Chuco, and died in Paris. His astonishing inventiveness of language, his passion as a poet, his sensitivities and perceptiveness, especially regarding the lives of the poor, all informed his work. Rather than working word for word (but almost doing so), I have tried to make the English of this translation as energetic and startling as the original. This poem (“Los heraldos negros)” is one of his best known and most admired. 

Portrait of Reginald Gibbons
Author Photo: Cornelia Spelman

Reginald Gibbons is the author of eleven books of poems, including CREATURES OF A DAY, a Finalist for the National Book Award, and his most recent book, RENDITIONS (Four Way Books 2021). He has also published several works of translation—Luis Cernuda, SELECTED POEMS (Sheep Meadow Press); a number of Mexican poets in NEW WRITING FROM MEXICO (TriQuarterly Books); Jorge Guillen, THE POETRY AND THE POET (Princeton UP, co-translated with Anthony L. Geist); Sophocles’ ANTIGONE and Euripides’ BAKKHAI (Oxford UP, co-translated with Charles Segal), and Sophocles, SELECTED POEMS: ODES AND FRAGMENTS (Princeton UP). Gibbons’ novel, SWEETBITTER, won the Anisfield-Wolf Book Award and will be reissued in a new paperback by JackLeg Press in 2023. 

“Our idea in calling this the ‘Translator’s Page’ is to show the ways and/or languages in which a translator works. Monthly posts may include translations from different languages and styles and centuries. The connective thread between them is the ability of the translator to interpret cultures and time periods for the contemporary reader.” —Jonathan Wells, curator of The Translator’s Page